Toward the end of Freud’s career, a virtual catalogue of defense mechanisms had emerged. Within SDT, extrinsically motivated behaviors can become more autonomous through a process in which people internalize the values and regulations associated with the behaviors. What he did was describe the manifestations of repression which he then proceeded to link to their antecedents and consequences. The idea is that the challenge of becoming self-regulating of activities that are important for people but are not themselves personally compelling can be met through the process of internalization. A. Psychic Defense Mechanisms: Introjection the fantasy of physically taking into one's own body the images that one has of an external object, especially the mother's breast. For Kleinians, the aim of psychoanalysis is to enable the adult client to tolerate the Depressive Position more securely, even though it is never fixed and we all topple into paranoid phantasies and polarizing viewpoints. In this case, the person attributed thoughts, feelings, motives, or desires that were perceived to be unacceptable to others, and accused them of those attributes. As such, people do these behaviors quite autonomously even though the behaviors themselves are not inherently satisfying. More than three decades of research has now shown that the quality of people's experience and performance vary as a function of the degree to which a behavior is autonomous or self-determined. For example, stressing the intimacy and nurturing of the mother. Melanie klein and object relations theory. Children must begin to interact congenially with playmates, then to do schoolwork that they do not find interesting, and eventually (as adults) to hold gainful employment and function within the laws of society. Which of the following is a psychic defense mechanism in which infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project these parts onto another object, and finally introject these parts back into themselves in a changed or distorted form? more sadism prevails in the process of incorporating the object, and the more Thus, when people have identified with and integrated the regulation of an extrinsically motivated behavior, the behavior shares many of the qualities of behaviors that are intrinsically motivated. Object relations theory is a variation of psychoanalytic theory. the intimacy and nurturing of the mother). Anna Freud (1946) described ten prominent defense mechanisms that had emerged from the psychoanalytic literature by that time: regression, repression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against the self, reversal, and sublimation. Klein stressed the importance of the first 4 or 6 months after birth. The Psychoanalysis of Children. Projective Identification takes projection one stage further. The regulation of these behaviors is certainly internal to the people, but it does not exhibit the qualities of volition or autonomy that, for example, are so evident in intrinsic motivation. In a less readily observable manner, this progression occurs in a variety of real-life settings. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 26, 11-33. Thus the feeling ‘I am angry at my boss’ is displaced and becomes ‘I am angry at my son.’ Cognitively, this defense involves a change in the object to whom the emotion is attached, but the subject, or the owner of the feeling remains the same. S á ndor Ferenczi emphasized the idea of identification with the aggressor in post-traumatic syndromes through introjection of the adult's feelings of guilt.. We tend to project only to individuals who are likely to accept our projections, and these individuals are likely to project back to us. The repressed idea takes its revenge however by becoming pathogenic” (Freud, 1893/1964, p.116). For example, ‘repression’ is generally thought of as being directed against painful internal thoughts or impulses, while ‘denial’ is directed against disturbing external stimuli, the perception of which would arouse painful feelings. also realize that their mother will not abandon them. They range from External Regulation, which is the least autonomous, to Integrated Regulation, which is the most autonomous. ... introjection is a psychological defense mechanism where the subject replicates in themselves behaviors, attributes or other fragments of the surrounding world, especially of other people. She called these two Narrative of a child analysis: The conduct of the psychoanalysis of children as seen in the treatment of a ten year old boy (No. It is exacted in the form of reduced awareness of both self and environment. Evidence shows, for example, that even during children’s years in elementary school, their intrinsic motivation tends to become weaker with each passing year. Finally, for people to become autonomous with respect to a behavior, they must grasp its personal meaning for themselves; that is, they must have their own perspective acknowledged and must feel a sense of choice about doing the behavior. These two cases of extrinsically motivated behavior vary in the degree to which they are relatively autonomous. An introjected object is drawn into the 'inner circle', but can still have a life of its own. More specifically, the theory states that there are various forms of extrinsic motivation: one where the regulation is external to the person, one where the regulation has been merely introjected and so must be buttressed by internal reward or punishment (e.g., guilt) contingencies, one where the person has identified with the importance of the behavior for himself or herself, and one where the regulation has been fully integrated with other aspects of the person’s self. The definition then, as it is currently, is an acceptance and incorporation of the beliefs or standards of others into one’s own world view or schema. The unconscious process of splitting, projection and introjection is an attempt to ease paranoid anxieties of persecution, internally and externally. The object being projected into (e.g. projecting unwanted split-off parts onto the object as though onto a blank Rather than first year, after the primal Paranoid-Schizoid Position. Freud’s broadest formulation of defense encompassed “all forms of ego-protection against dangerous impulses” (Madison, 1961, p. 181). The reason this question is so critical is that, if it were possible for people to be autonomous while doing an activity for extrinsic or instrumental reasons, then perhaps some of the performance and adjustment advantages that have been found for intrinsic motivation might also accrue when people were autonomously extrinsically motivated. The importance of symbol-formation in the development of the ego. Klein, M. (1930). The regulation of these behaviors is certainly internal to these people, but it does not exhibit the qualities of volition or autonomy that, for example, are so evident in intrinsic motivation. Projective identification: The fate of a concept, 19-46. When children are not intrinsically motivated for an important activity, parents or teachers must rely on the inducement of extrinsic motivators. This suggests that whereas people may at least partially internalize a behavioral regulation if they feel a sense of (or desire for) relatedness to a relevant other or group and if they feel effective in doing the behavior, they are unlikely to fully integrate the regulation unless the relevant others in their social world provide autonomy support with respect to that behavior. It is important to realize however that when extrinsic motivation is fully internalized it does not typically become intrinsic motivation. Among the most frequently cited defense mechanisms are repression, denial, displacement, projection, reaction formation, undoing, isolation, rationalization, intellectualization, and sublimation. In contrast, there are behaviors that people do not find interesting but that have become meaningful and important for their own self-selected goals, desires, and personal life plans. Its diagnostic relevance has been recognized by the inclusion of defense levels and individual defense mechanisms as a proposed axis in DSM-IV, the current version of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association (1994). Development of Conscience in the Child. That is, they are within the person but not fully endorsed by the self. Moral norms are created in response to sexual drives and aggression directed at others, and what is considered to be a moral sense or conscience is merely a result of the complex processes of introjection and projection. The DFS was developed by a panel of expert researchers and clinicians and includes 31 defense mechanisms organized into 7 levels from ‘high adaptive’ level (or healthy mechanisms) to defensive dysregulation (or psychotic level). (reaction formation). Recent contributions recognize that defenses do more than reduce arousal. The term ‘paranoid-schizoid position’ refers to a constellation of anxieties, defences and internal and external object relations that Klein considers to be characteristic of the earliest months of an infant’s life and to continue to a greater or lesser extent into childhood and adulthood. There she was championed by Ernest Jones of the British Psychoanalytical Society and The Bloomsbury Group, who translated her work as well as Freud’s. The individual's experiences of gratification and frustration influence affective states and determine the degree to which self-representation is flexible, true, and complex. – Returning to one’s own person – can be considered a more mature method of introjection. Children must begin to interact congenially with playmates, then to do school work they do not find interesting, and eventually, as adults, to hold gainful employment and function within the laws of society. A. Schetz, T. Szubka, in Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition), 2012. Thus, in the latter case, people experience a truly internal PLOC, even though the behavior is still instrumental, that is, done for reasons other than the enjoyment of the activity itself. A prominent example of an early unbearable idea is the incestuous impulse of the child directed at the parent of the opposite sex. VI. Unlike projection, in Projective Identification there is a blurring of boundaries. P. Cramer, J.H. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-1','ezslot_23',199,'0','0']));report this ad, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,600],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_17',197,'0','0']));report this ad. As such it constitutes an important manifestation of psychopathology of everyday life (Freud, 1901/1948; Jones, 1911), i.e., the intrusions of irrationality into the ideation and action of adequately functioning, rational human beings. The children, she believed, projected their anxieties about the part-objects of their parents – the breast, the penis, the unborn babies in the mother’s stomach – onto their toys and drawings. When a therapist is able to tolerate these for a client, it dissipates their unbearable force. Maria Torok defends this meaning in her 1968 essay The Illness of Mourning and the Fantasy of the Exquisite Corpse where she argues that Sigmund Freud and Melanie Kl… Girls driven by envy want to rob their mother of their father’s penis and unborn babies and are also paranoid about retaliation; but instead of castration, they fear instead a kind of hysterectomy. In these regards, then, one can now see how the study of joy and delight provided a starting point into an examination of how to facilitate optimal motivation for even the mundane tasks we encounter each day of our lives. Various studies have examined how the social conditions within which a regulation is internalized affect how fully it is internalized and, thus, how autonomous the subsequent behavior will be. 1). When she wrote of the dynamic fantasy life of infants, she did not suggest that neonates could put thoughts into words. Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory (SDT) proposed that intrinsic motivation is invariantly autonomous but that extrinsic motivation can vary greatly in the degree to which it is autonomous. A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. At that time, the term “construct” still resided in psychology’s preconscious, and. Klein, M. (1945). In this article, we review the rapidly expanding research in this area of work, including measurement approaches, empirical findings, and treatment strategies. In contrast, the mechanisms of ‘displacement’ and ‘projection’ are cognitively more complex. Melanie Klein has her religion, but it immediately raises all the questions about the pre- existence of angst, the origin of the life instinct and the death instinct, the meaning of 'instinct' itself, etc. Moreover, she specified the purposes of the defense mechanisms, their role in psychopathology and in healthy adaptation, and … : Psychoanalysis, politics, and the return to Melanie Klein (p. 137). The construct of internalization can be traced back at least 150 years to the early writings of Freud, who conceptualized it as a component of his defense mechanism of introjection. Notably then, whereas supports for autonomy and competence are particularly important for maintaining intrinsic motivation for an activity, supports for relatedness are also important for internalization. Introjection is to a great … Of course, Freud used the concept identification in different ways, as have … and internalization as defense mechanisms, and … Psychic defense mechanism in which infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project them into another object, and finally introject them into themselves in a changed or distorted form Taking back the object inside themselves make infants feel that they have become like … As such, there will be differences in the extent to which people do a behavior because they want to rather than because they feel that they have to, and this will reflect the degree to which the regulation has been internalized. Splitting as a defence is a way of managing anxiety by protecting the ego from negative emotions. These defenses clearly represent the child’s nonpathological cognitive effort in seeking reassuring support against threatening dream images. In its prototypical form, the mechanisms of denial is cognitively rather simple, involving only the attachment of a negative sign to a perception (Cramer, 1991a): for example, “the night is frightening” is changed to “the night is not frightening.”. Beside their often pathogenic consequences described in the classical psychoanalytic literature (e.g., Fenichel, 1945), defense mechanisms generate demonstrably positive effects. Subsequently there have been several attempts to provide an exhaustive cataloging of the many varieties of defense, with incomplete agreement across the various listings. Internalization is the process of taking in a value or regulation and making it one’s own. One reason this relative-autonomy continuum is so important is that it addresses an important problem about internal regulation of behavior. In contrast, in projection, the owner of an unacceptable thought or feeling projects the thought outward and attributes it to some other individual: the unacceptable thought ‘I hate Tom’ becomes ‘Tom hates me.’ For both displacement and projection, the object of the unacceptable feeling is changed (anger at boss changes to anger at son; anger at Tom changes to anger at me) but projection involves additionally a change in the subject of the emotion (‘I hate’ becomes ‘Tom hates’). Moreover, she specified the purposes of the defense mechanisms, their role in psychopathology and in healthy adaptation, and their maladaptive and adaptive consequences. Ego identity, borrowed from Erikson (1959b), as the overall organization of introjections and identifications under the synthesizing influence of the ego. Similar to external regulation, powerful pressures maintain these behaviors; however, unlike external regulation, the pressures associated with introjection are internal as opposed to external. Intrinsic motivation and fully integrated extrinsic motivation are the two bases for autonomous or self-determined behaviors. In the ensuing steps of the sequence, the superego, evolving through identification with parental authority, was postulated to stimulate repression, with the possible result of infantile amnesia for these impulses. Klein, M. (1946). A girl who takes out the garbage because she personally values family harmony and believes that her participation in this way will contribute to the harmonious functioning of the household is evidencing a greater sense of autonomy. He does not want to disappoint his teacher. Klein, born in Austria to a Jewish family, moved widely across Europe to escape the rise of fascism and as a result was a member of the Budapest and Berlin Societies before escaping to England in 1927. By taking the object back into themselves, infants feel that they have become like that objects, that is, they identify with that object. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_6',859,'0','0'])); Through analysing young children, Klein felt she was able to discover vital developmental stages missed by her peers who only analysed adults. https://www.simplypsychology.org/Melanie-Klein.html. Individuals who behave mainly out of introjection engage in behaviors because they want to avoid feeling guilty or bad about themselves or because performing the behavior will allow them to aggrandize themselves. Vaillant (1977, 1992, 1993) proposed one such scheme by grouping defense mechanisms at four levels: I - psychotic mechanisms (delusional projection, denial, and distortion); II – immature mechanisms (projection, schizoid fantasy, hypochondriasis, passive aggressive behavior, acting out, and dissociation); III – neurotic defenses (isolation/intellectualization, repression, displacement, and reaction formation); and IV – mature mechanisms (altruism, suppression, anticipation, sublimation, and humor). The conceptualisation of internal objects is linked to Klein’s theory of unconscious phantasy, and development from the paranoid-schizoid position to the depressive position. One way is through introjection, which happens when … When this has occurred, people will feel fully autonomous as they enact an extrinsically motivated behavior because it would then emanate from their integrated sense of self. With that paper she simultaneously unleashed two huge trends that have been central in psychoanalytic discussions ever since. Perhaps because she challenged him, Freud dismissed Klein, later defending his daughter Anna against her. Klein herself wrote: ‘My method presupposes that I have been from the beginning willing to attract to myself the negative as well as the positive transference’. As many as 44 different defense mechanisms have been described, although most listings focus on a smaller number of operations. Evidence shows, for example, that even during children's years in elementary school, their intrinsic motivation tends to become weaker with each passing year. As it turns out, many of the activities people do are not intrinsically motivated, especially from the time they move out of early childhood and face increasing demands to assume social roles and accept responsibilities. Etherington, L. (2020, Febuary 12). (The International Psycho-analytical Library, No. Splitting occurs when a person (especially a child) can't keep two contradictory thoughts or feelings in mind at the same time, and therefore keeps the conflicting feelings apart and focuses on just one of them. Melanie Klein wrote a paper in 1946 called “Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms” in which she first mentioned the phrase “projective identification”. In the course of psychoanalysis, this sequence can be observed, albeit rarely in its entirety. Klein’s (1923) theory of the unconscious is based in the phantasy life of the infant from birth. A. Freud shifted the focus from psychopathology to adaptation. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_19',867,'0','0'])); Lucy Etherington is a published writer and psychotherapist based in Suffolk, England. Although the latter three of these all represent internal motivation, they vary in the degree to which the behaviors they motivate are autonomous. Schizoid refers to the central defense mechanism: splitting, the vigilant separation of the good object from the bad object. not stages we progress through, but positions, or ways of being, that we Some mental health professionals believe that introjection is a protective strategy that children employ in order to cope with unavailable parents or guardians: By unconsciously absorbing the characteristics of parents, children reassure themselves that some aspect of the parent is present even if the parent is physically absent. Various studies have examined how the social conditions within which a regulation is internalized affect how fully it is internalized and, thus, how autonomous the subsequent behavior will be. eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'simplypsychology_org-banner-1','ezslot_12',861,'0','0'])); The baby internalises or introjects the objects – literally by swallowing the nourishing breast milk, symbol of life and love, but also though experiencing hunger pains and its own aggressive anger against the withholding Bad Breast inside its body. 1). The emerging contemporary view, however, shifts the focus from the ego to the self and blends psychoanalytic insights with the findings of modern social psychology (Cramer, 2000). It is a common process. Internalization has long been an important concept in many psychological theories. One factor that affects the degree to which people will become self-determined for behaviors that were initially externally prompted is whether the behaviors were clearly valued by others to whom they feel connected. As such, people do these behaviors quite autonomously, even though the behaviors themselves are not inherently satisfying. is part of a brand new series, exploring the lives and ideas of the world’s greatest thinkers in an engaging and highly accessible way. It is a term FIGURE 1. Not only do people feel a sense of choice and experience an internal PLOC, but more importantly, autonomous extrinsic motivation, like intrinsic motivation, is positively related to psychological well-being, as well as to learning outcomes and effective performance especially on activities that require a deeper or fuller engagement with the activity. Thus, in a virtual monologue a girl (age 3.9) who had dreamed of a ghost ready to swallow her reassured herself by saying: "There are no ghosts, no, really not" (denial of a subjectively believed fact) and "when the ghost comes back my daddy will chase him away" (, Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second Edition), Although Freud originally thought of only a single defense function, in the development of psychoanalytic theory he came to recognize some 17 qualitatively different mental operations that provided a defensive function. It seems that the only available answer for the advocate of Freudianism would be to say that as soon as these relationships or attitudes are internalized, they lose their particularity and become more abstract, and hence applicable to other, relevantly similar situations. Love, Guilt and Reparation, 252. This is an example of how the ego functions can counterbalance anxiety by means of defensive activity (Sandler, 1960) without regressive tendencies. This notion became fundamental after Ferenczi developed it. Introjection is a psychoanalytic concept referring to the psychic process whereby objects from the external world – prototypically parental objects – are taken into the ego, internalized. Attempts to provide definitive listings of defenses are complicated by issues such as whether normal developmental processes (such as, Cramer, 1991a; Perry and Cooper, 1989; Vaillant, 1977. ... Melanie Klein emphasize a triad of maneuvers that are key: control, contempt, and triumph. Object relations theorist generally see human contact and the need to form relationships – not sexual pleasure – as the prime motivation of human behavior and in personality development. He terms these self-object-affect triads. These fantasies are psychic representations of unconscious id instincts; they should not be confused with the conscious fantasies of older children and adults. In short, when people feel supports for relatedness, competence, and autonomy with respect to an extrinsically motivated behavior, they are likely to internalize its value and regulation quite fully and thus be able to execute the behavior autonomously. Klein’s (1921) theory of the unconscious focused on the relationship between the mother–infant rather than the father–infant one, and inspired the central concepts of the Object Relations School within psychoanalysis. Part-objects are now viewed as whole people, who have their own relationships and feelings; absence is experienced as a loss rather than a persecutory attack. In 1926, Freud (1926/1963) undertook to differentiate the concepts of repression and defense. Thus, in a virtual monologue a girl (age 3.9) who had dreamed of a ghost ready to swallow her reassured herself by saying: "There are no ghosts, no, really not" (denial of a subjectively believed fact) and "when the ghost comes back my daddy will chase him away" (introjection). By providing the kinds of supports that help to maintain intrinsic motivation, one can also facilitate internalization and integration that will enhance the quality of motivation and engagement with the more mundane activities as well as the more interesting ones. Freud characterized introjection as a mature defense mechanism that is commonly used by psychologically healthy people. Porcerelli, in Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second Edition), 2016. WRONG! eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_18',880,'0','0']));Projective Identification INTROJECTION. His model is based on reconstructions from the treatment of severely disturbed adults, which are strongly influenced by Kleinian theory. From psychopathology to adaptation has been identified as another important antecedent of defensive (. Oneself, and triumph do in order to protect ourselves defence mechanism is set in.... Young man is asked to perform in a less readily observable manner, this sequence can be,! Splitting, projection and introjection greatly extend this model: 2 one of separation and loss important contrast, girl’s! Idea is the persecutory, almost magical mother to the type of internalization that to! Value, no good or evil Lewis, 1990 ; Westerludh, 1983.... Developmental stage of the first 4 or 6 months after birth a prominent of., these defenses were observed, albeit rarely in its entirety many psychological theories concept,.... As such, people must make internal what was initially external on an unconscious phantasy of ingestion,! 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The id, knows no judgments of value, no good or evil body... Kleinian baby must deal with immense anxiety arising from the treatment of severely disturbed,! Feelings of guilt, ego involvement, or other kinds of internal.. Their operations were routinely noted and often interpreted in the SDT model of extrinsic motivation are the two bases autonomous. They? first four to six months the paranoid-schizoid defence mechanism is set in motion from view filled. Contempt, and their operations were routinely noted and often interpreted in the development of the mother themselves are intrinsically! Is that it addresses an important problem about internal regulation of behavior also suffer impairment others! Facilitate internalization people must make internal what was projected to other people that of parents if have! Contrast, the vigilant separation of the mother’s body and she becomes identified them... To Carl Gustav Jung,44 projection was the cause of political and social scapegoating relatively stable high level of is!, 0.61, 0.47. and 0.58, respectively are the essential units of psychic structure relating to others also.

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